Mardi 19 août 2008 à 15:08

Notre cerveau : intelligence; langage

    Un de mes correspondants, qui bégayait étant jeune, a suivi une rééducation chez un orthophoniste et parle maintenant normalement, me demande si je sais pourquoi “son cerveau bégayait ainsi”.
    J'ai lu quelques articles sur ce sujet et j'ai pensé que ma réponse pouvait aussi intéresser d'autres correspondants qui lisent mes articles sur le fonctionnement du cerveau.

    Les neuro biologistes ont en effet étudié la question.
    Mais auparavant je vous résume quelques notions sur les mécanismes de la parole, que j'avais développés dans des articles en août et novembre 2007 (notre cerveau).
    Voir le schéma ci dessous :


 
    Lorsque nous écoutons quelqu'un, l'oreille transmet les sons à l'aire auditive qui les analyse et, lorsqu'il s'agit de mots (ou de sons apparentés), les signaux sont transmis à l'aire de Wernicke qui va reconnaître s'il s'agit de langage et le décrypter en partie. Elle se met en relation avec l'aire de Geschwind qui est en quelque sorte la “mémoire des mots”, pour en comprendre la signification.

        Lorsque nous lisons, ce n'est plus l'aire auditive qui intervient mais les aires visuelles,  situées à l'arrière du cerveau. Le mécanisme est ensuite analogue.
        Enfin lorsque nous voulons parler, c'est encore le centre de Wernicke qui élabore le message. Mais il ne sait ni ordonner les mots d'une phrase, ni le transmettre à nos lèvres.
De même quand nous voulons écrire, il recherche les mots correspondant aux idées mais il ne sait pas commander nos doigts.        
        Pour parler, pour écrire, l'aire de Wernicke a besoin de l'aire de Broca.
        Celle ci va utiliser grammaire et syntaxe et mettre les mots en phrases, puis elle va commander les muscles de la parole ou de l'écriture, par l'intermédiaire du cortex moteur primaire et notamment de sa partie inférieure, tout à coté d'elle, que l'on appelle le cortex moteur primaire des mouvements complexes.
        Une personne dont l'aire de Broca est lésée comprend le langage écrit et parlé, mais ne peut plus s'exprimer ou émet une suite de mots sans liens entre eux..
       Donc, l'aire de Broca “organise le langage et commande son expression orale ou écrite” par les cordes vocales ou la main, par l'intermédiaire de centres moteurs situés dans le cortex sur le dessus du crâne.
    Tous ces centres sont situés dans l'hémisphère gauche du cerveau.

     Pour suivre une conversation, comprendre un texte ou une plaisanterie, on doit non seulement être capable de comprendre la syntaxe des phrases et le sens des mots mais également de mettre en relation plusieurs éléments et de les interpréter par rapport à un contexte donné.
    En particulier l'expression des visages des individus et l'intonation de leur voix apportent des éléments émotionnels.
    Les aires de l'hémisphère droit symétriques de celles de l'hémisphère gauche interviennent pour saisir l'intonation et l'accentuation des mots, les indices permettant d'établir un contexte communicationnel, les nuances apportées par certains mots, les intentions de l'interlocuteur, les gestes et expressions du visage ou les conventions sociales,la compréhension du langage non-littéral (ironie, métaphores, sous-entendus...)
    Enfin si l'hémisphère gauche comporte la “mémoire des mots”, il semble que ce soit l'hémisphère droit qui comportera celle des nuances, des émotions et des images liées au langage.
    L'hémisphère droit est également “consulté” lorsque l'on se trouve face à des fautes grammaticales ou des phrases incomplètes, afin de rétablir le texte exact.

    Lorsque l'on examine l'activité des centres de la parole d'un bègue, on constate que les centres de l'hémisphère gauche et notamment le centre de Broca, sont moins actifs et ceux de l'hémisphère droit au contraire plus actifs, que chez un individu à la parole normale.
    Les centres de l'hémisphère droit sont fortement reliés au cerveau émotionnel et notamment aux centres amygdaliens qui contrôlent la peur, la colère, le stress... et à des centres cingulaires antérieurs qui contrôlent nos rapports sociaux.
    On constate souvent que la personne bégaie peu lorsqu'elle est seule, mais que la présence d'autrui, le stress, les émotions, ou certaines situations psychologiques de blocage, augmentent considérablement le begaiement.
    Une analyse plus détaillée des centres de l'hémisphère gauche montre une certaine déficience du “controle auditif” chez les bègues. Lorsque nous parlons, notre oreille perçoit nos paroles et le centre auditif les transmet au centre de Wernicke qui informe le centre de Broca de la justesse de ses ordres et sinon corrige nos dires. C'est cette “rétroactivité” qui semble mal fonctionner chez les bègues.

    L'orthophoniste va leur faire travailler l'élocution, prendre une façon de parler plus douce, allonger les syllabes, faire des transitions entre les mots, et respirer autrement...
    A l'issue de cette “thérapeutique” qui peut durer un à deux ans, le bégaiement est en général très fortement diminué, voire supprimé,  et on constate alors une augmentation sensible de l'activité des aires de la parole de l'hémisphère gauche. Toutefois ce ne sont pas les neurones de la partie qui était “en panne” qui fonctionnent à nouveau, mais des neurones voisins qui ont pris le relais.
    L'hémisphère droit reste malgré tout plus actif que la normale, même après la “guérison”;

    Voilà résumé succintement, le contenu des articles que j'ai pu lire sur ce sujet.

Par Eucalyptus le Lundi 25 août 2008 à 16:50
Voila quelque chose de bien instructif...
je tenait à vous félicité pour votre blog Monsieur Lancien. Mais? Lancien, pourquoi vous ne faites pas plus d'article comique pour remonté le moral?

Moi je n'ai pas de grands parents, et j'aurai beaucoup aimé avoir un grand père comme vous...

Et n'hésiter pas à visité mon blog, Ils n'y a pas beaucoup de personne qui le visites, car se sont des choses assez spécial...
Ils y à ma passion pour l'Esotherisme, un article sur comment savoir qui est notre anges gardien, puis quelque catcheur, je parle aussi des rongeurs (Capi bara et de mes Cochons d' Inde) du sexage des Perruche ondulée, d'un instrument médiéval que j'aimerais bien apprendre mais malheureusement TRÈS chère puisqu'il sagit dune Vielle à roue, et de créature mythique tel que les pégases et les licornes... Il y en à pour tous les goût, mais en musique, je ne ferait pas d'article sur le métal ni le rap. j'ai horreur de ça!
P.S:
Ne vous inquiétez pas, mes article sont positif et il n'y à aucune magie Noir
pour le bien de ceux qui veulent pratiqué mes rituel je les avertit avant toute action que la magie n'est pas un jeu!
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